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The science behind how jet engines works?


As per our older post (click here), we know the fastest Air-breathing engine is the jet engine (also known as turbine engine). It is mostly used in Aircraft. Jet engines works on the basis of the principle of Newton's third law of motion


"Every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."


Initially, the frontal area of the Jet engine sucks air from the atmosphere which gets compressed and the fuel is injected, the compressed air gets ignited and passes the exhaust with high velocity providing the thrust force for aircraft to fly.


Jet engines have major parts to do this process;


Jest engine represenation
Engine Part Representation | Source: Slideplayer

1.Diffuser:

The diffuser is present at the frontal area of the engine. The diffuser is used to suck the atmospheric air to initiate the combustion process.


2. Compressor:

The compressor is the second stage of the jet engine. It contains two types of section: the rotor and the stator. The main function of a compressor is to compress the atmospheric air to high pressure make them prepare for combustion stage. Stator section remains static. Rotor section rotates continuously to make the atmospheric air to pressurised for combustion.


3. Combustion Chamber:

In the combustion chamber, the pressurized air is mixed with fuel and ignited by the ignition system. After ignition, it gets combusted in the chamber with high temperature. After ignition, the combusted exits with high velocity.


4. Turbine:

A turbine is fixed with a compressor by a rotating shaft. Both rotate evenly so the combusted air coming from the combustion chamber makes a turbine to rotates at high speed so the compressor also rotates at the same speed. It causes the high intake airflow in the engine so the thrust of the engine increases.


5.Nozzle:

The nozzle is the exit point for the combusted hot air of the engine. The work of the nozzle is to create more thrust. So, the nozzle makes hot air to exit with a high velocity with low pressure. The nozzle area is smaller in size because of that, it cause high velocity in the exhaust of the engine.



 


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